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William Shakespeare

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kitty
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نجمه William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف kitty في 21/5/2009, 2:42 am

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I post 4 u this topic about the famous writer William Shakespeare and information about his life


William Shakespeare


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Details
about William Shakespeare’s life are sketchy, mostly mere surmise based
upon court or other clerical records. His parents, John and Mary
(Arden), were married about 1557; she was of the landed gentry, he a
yeoman—a glover and commodities merchant. By 1568, John had risen
through the ranks of town government and held the position of high
bailiff, similar to mayor. William, the eldest son, was born in 1564,
probably on April 23, several days before his baptism on April 26,
1564. That Shakespeare also died on April 23, 52 years later, may have
resulted in the adoption of this birth date.
William no doubt attended the local grammar school in Stratford where
his parents lived, and would have studied primarily Latin rhetoric,
logic, and literature [Barnet, viii]. At age 18 (1582), William married
Anne Hathaway, a local farmer’s daughter eight years his senior. Their
first daughter (Susanna) was born six months later (1583), and twins
Judith and Hamnet were born in 1585.
Shakespeare’s life can be divided into three periods: the first 20
years in Stratford, which include his schooling, early marriage, and
fatherhood; the next 25 years as an actor and playwright in London; and
the last five in retirement back in Stratford where he enjoyed moderate
wealth gained from his theatrical successes. The years linking the
first two periods are marked by a lack of information about
Shakespeare, and are often referred to as the “dark years”; the
transition from active work into retirement was gradual and cannot be
precisely dated [Boyce, 587].
John Shakespeare had suffered financial reverses from William’s teen
years until well into the height of the playwright’s popularity and
success. In 1596, John Shakespeare was granted a coat of arms, almost
certainly purchased by William, who the next year bought a sizable
house in Stratford. By the time of his death, William had substantial
properties, both professional and personal, which he bestowed on his
theatrical associates and his family (primarily his daughter Susanna,
having rewritten his will one month before his death to protect his
assets from Judith’s new husband, Thomas Quiney, who ran afoul of
church doctrine and public esteem before and after the marriage)
Shakespeare probably left school at 15, which was the norm, and took
some sort of job, especially since this was the period of his father’s
financial difficulty.


When, in 1592, the Plague closed the theaters for about two years,
Shakespeare turned to writing book-length narrative poetry. Most
notable were “Venus and Adonis” and “The Rape of Lucrece,” both of
which were dedicated to the Earl of Southampton, whom scholars accept
as Shakespeare’s friend and benefactor despite a lack of documentation.
During this same period, Shakespeare was writing his sonnets, which are
more likely signs of the time’s fashion rather than actual love poems
detailing any particular relationship. He returned to play writing when
theaters reopened in 1594, and published no more poetry. His sonnets
were published without his consent in 1609, shortly before his
retirement.
Amid all of his success, Shakespeare suffered the loss of his only son,
Hamnet, who died in 1596 at the age of 11. But Shakespeare’s career
continued unabated.
When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603 and was succeeded by her cousin King
James of Scotland, the Chamberlain’s Men was renamed the King’s Men,
and Shakespeare’s productivity and popularity continued uninterrupted.
He invested in London real estate and, one year away from retirement,
purchased a second theater, the Blackfriars Gatehouse, in partnership
with his fellow actors. His final play was Henry VIII, two years before
his death in 1616.


Incredibly, most of Shakespeare’s plays had never been published in
anything except pamphlet form, and were simply extant as acting scripts
stored at the Globe. Only the efforts of two of Shakespeare’s company,
John Heminges and Henry Condell, preserved his 36 plays (minus
Pericles, the thirty-seventh) [Barnet, xvii] in the First Folio.
Heminges and Condell published the plays, they said, “only to keep the
memory of so worthy a friend and fellow alive as was our Shakespeare”
[Chute, 133]. Theater scripts were not regarded as literary works of
art, but only the basis for the performance. Plays were a popular form
of entertainment for all layers of society in Shakespeare’s time, which
perhaps explains why Hamlet feels compelled to instruct the traveling
Players on the fine points of acting, urging them not “to split the
ears of the groundlings,” nor “speak no more than is set down for them.”
Present copies of Shakespeare’s plays have, in some cases, been
reconstructed in part from scripts written down by various members of
an acting company who performed particular roles. Shakespeare’s plays,
like those of many of the actors who also were playwrights, belonged to
the acting company. The performance, rather than the script, was what
concerned the author, for that was how his play would become
popular—and how the company, in which many actors were shareholders,
would make money.
William Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616, and was buried two days
later in the chancel of Holy Trinity Church where he had been baptized
exactly 52 years earlier.
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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف عذب الكلام في 25/5/2009, 12:18 am

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف kitty في 26/5/2009, 1:39 am

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف ???? في 27/5/2009, 11:34 pm

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف المدير العام في 3/6/2009, 11:51 pm

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف shady في 7/6/2009, 10:31 pm

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف kitty في 21/6/2009, 1:24 am

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف dode في 12/7/2009, 9:28 pm

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف baby في 20/7/2009, 12:06 am

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نجمه رد: William Shakespeare

مُساهمة من طرف MAMOON في 28/7/2009, 3:37 am

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Thank you

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